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White House

Jump to navigation Jump to go looking "1600 Pennsylvania Avenue" redirects right here. For other makes use of, see 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue (disambiguation) and White House (disambiguation).

White HouseTop: the northern facade with a columned portico dealing with Lafayette Square Bottom: the southern facade with a semi-circular portico facing the South Lawn and The EllipseLocation in Central Washington, D.C.Location in Washington, D.C.Location in United StatesGeneral dataArchitectural styleNeoclassical, PalladianAddress1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NWWashington, D.C. 20500U.S.Coordinates38°53′52″N 77°02′11″W / 38.8977°N 77.0365°WCoordinates: 38°53′52″N 77°02′11″W / 38.8977°N 77.0365°WCurrent tenantsJoe Biden, President of the United States and the First FamilyConstruction beganOctober 13, 1792CompletedNovember 1, 1800[1]Technical detailsFloor area55,000 sq feet (5,100 m2)Design and constructionArchitectJames HobanWebsitewhitehouse.govU.S. National Register of Historic PlacesU.S. National Historic LandmarkNRHP reference No.19600001[2]Designated NHLDecember 19, 1960 Aerial view of the White House advanced, from north. In the foreground is Pennsylvania Avenue, closed to site visitors. Center: Executive Residence (1792–1800) with North Portico (1829) dealing with; left: East Wing (1942); appropriate: West Wing (1901), with the Oval Office (1934) at its southeast nook.

The White House is the authentic place of dwelling and place of job of the president of the United States. It is situated at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., and has been the place of abode of every U.S. president since John Adams in 1800. The term "White House" is continuously used as a metonym for the president and their advisers.

The residence was once designed by means of Irish-born architect James Hoban[3] within the neoclassical genre. Hoban modelled the development on Leinster House in Dublin, a development which these days houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction happened between 1792 and 1800 the use of Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he (with architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe) added low colonnades on every wing that hid stables and garage.[4] In 1814, all the way through the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by way of the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the inner and charring a lot of the exterior. Reconstruction began almost in an instant, and President James Monroe moved into the in part reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Exterior structure continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829.

Because of crowding throughout the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly built West Wing in 1901. Eight years later in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the primary Oval Office, which was eventually moved as the segment was once expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was once transformed to living quarters in 1927 through augmenting the prevailing hip roof with lengthy shed dormers. A newly built East Wing was used as a reception space for social occasions; Jefferson's colonnades attached the new wings. East Wing alterations were finished in 1946, developing additional office space. By 1948, the place of abode's load-bearing external walls and inside wooden beams have been found to be just about failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the internal rooms were completely dismantled and a new inner load-bearing steel frame constructed throughout the walls. On the outside, the Truman Balcony was added. Once the structural work was finished, the inner rooms were rebuilt.

The modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building (the previous State Department, which now houses offices for the president's workforce and the vp) and Blair House, a guest residence. The Executive Residence is made up of six tales: the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, and Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned via the National Park Service and is a part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was once ranked second[5] on the American Institute of Architects checklist of "America's Favorite Architecture".

Early historical past

1789–1800 Further data: Presidency of George Washington § Residences

Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two personal properties in New York City as the executive mansion. He lived on the first, known as the Franklin House and owned by way of Treasury Commissioner Samuel Osgood, at 3 Cherry Street through past due February 1790.[6][7] The govt mansion moved to the bigger quarters of the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway[7] where he stayed, with his wife and a small group of workers till August 1790. In May 1790, New York started structure of a "proper" house for the presidential mansion, Government House.[8] Washington never used the mansion because it used to be not finished till after the nationwide capital was once moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in December 1790.[8]

The July 1790 Residence Act designated the capital be permanently situated within the new Federal District, and quickly in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for ten years whilst the permanent capital used to be constructed.[9] Philadelphia rented the mansion of the rich merchant Robert Morris at 190 High Street (now 524–30 Market Street) as the President's House, which Washington occupied from November 1790 to March 1797.[10] Since the house was once too small to deal with the thirty people who made up the presidential circle of relatives, workforce, and servants, Washington had it enlarged.[10]

President John Adams additionally occupied the High Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he was the first president to occupy the White House.[11]

The President's House in Philadelphia used to be converted into the Union Hotel, and later used for shops, ahead of being demolished in 1832.[10]

Philadelphia started structure of a far grander presidential mansion a number of blocks away in 1792. It used to be nearly completed by the time of Adam's 1797 inauguration. However, Adams declined to occupy it saying he did not have Congressional authorization to rent the construction. It remained vacant till it was once bought to the University of Pennsylvania in 1800.[12]

First Presidential Mansion: Samuel Osgood House, Manhattan, New York. Occupied via Washington: April 1789 – February 1790.

Second Presidential Mansion: Alexander Macomb House, Manhattan, New York. Occupied by way of Washington: February–August 1790.

Third Presidential Mansion: President's House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Occupied via Washington: November 1790 – March 1797. Occupied by way of Adams: March 1797 – May 1800.

Government House, Manhattan, New York (1790–1791). Built to be the everlasting presidential mansion, Congress moved the national capital to Philadelphia earlier than its crowning glory.

House meant for the President, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1790s). Built to be the permanent presidential mansion, it used to be no longer utilized by any President.

Architectural pageant Hoban's Charleston County Courthouse, Charleston, South Carolina, 1790–92, was once admired by Washington. A 1793 elevation through James Hoban. His 3-story, 9-bay unique submission was altered into this 2-story, 11-bay design. Drawing of Andrea Palladio, Project for Francesco et Lodovico de Trissini, from the e book I quattro libri dell'architettura, 1570 The North Portico of the White House in comparison to Leinster House The Château de Rastignac in comparison to the South Portico of the White House, c. 1846

The President's House was once a big characteristic of Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's[a] 1791 plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D.C.[13] Washington and his Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who each had personal interests in architecture, agreed that the design of the White House, and the Capital, could be chosen in a design competition.[14]

Although all proposals for the Capital had been rejected, an appropriate drawing for the White House submitted via James Hoban was once decided on from several together with one submitted anonymously through Jefferson himself.[15]

Hoban was once born in Ireland and educated on the Dublin Society of Arts. He emigrated to the USA after the revolution, first looking for paintings in Philadelphia and later finding luck in South Carolina the place he designed a number of structures together with the state capitol at Columbia. Hoban in the end supervised the construction of each the USA Capitol and the White House.[16]

President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina, in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", and noticed the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed via Hoban. He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following yr, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792.[17]

On July 16, 1792, the president met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment within the architectural pageant. His evaluate is recorded as being temporary, and he quickly selected Hoban's submission.[18]

Design influences

The building has classical inspiration assets, that can be found within the types of the Roman architect Vitruvius and the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio; Palladio being an Italian architect of the Renaissance whose style evolved into Palladian structure, which changed into widespread in North American in the 18th century. Hoban's design is influenced by means of the higher floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which later became the seat of the Oireachtas (the Irish parliament).[19] Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been advised as assets of inspiration for the full surface plan, details like the bow-fronted south entrance, and inside details like the previous niches in the provide Blue Room. For example, a robust resemblance has been famous with the The Senate House of Cambridge University in England, constructed within the 1720's. These influences, though undocumented, are cited within the professional White House guide, and in White House Historical Association publications. The first professional White House guide, revealed in 1962, instructed a hyperlink between Hoban's design for the South Portico and Château de Rastignac, a neoclassical nation house positioned in La Bachellerie in the Dordogne region of France and designed by Mathurin Salat. Construction on the French house was first of all started prior to 1789, interrupted by the French Revolution for twenty years and then in the end constructed 1812–1817 (in accordance with Salat's pre-1789 design).[20] The theoretical link between the 2 properties has been criticized because Hoban did not visit France. Supporters of a connection posit that Thomas Jefferson, all through his excursion of Bordeaux in 1789, viewed Salat's architectural drawings (that have been on-file on the school) on the École Spéciale d'Architecture (Bordeaux Architectural College).[21] On his return to the United States he then shared the affect with Washington, Hoban, Monroe, and Benjamin Henry Latrobe.[20]


Though there's no record of a proper rite,[b] structure of the White House started at noon on October 13, 1792 with the laying of the cornerstone.[23] The main place of abode, in addition to foundations of the house, have been constructed largely through enslaved and free African-American laborers, as well as employed Europeans.[24] Much of the opposite paintings at the house was performed by immigrants, many not but with citizenship. The sandstone partitions have been erected by means of Scottish immigrants, employed through Hoban,[25] as were the high-relief rose and garland decorations above the north front and the "fish scale" development beneath the pediments of the window hoods. There are conflicting claims as to the place the sandstone used within the construction of the White House originated. Some experiences suggest sandstone from the Croatian island of Brač (specifically the Pučišća quarry whose stone used to be used to build the ancient Diocletian's Palace in Split) used to be used in the unique construction of the building, contrarily researchers consider limestone from the island used to be used in the 1902 renovations and now not the original construction. Others suggest the unique sandstone simply got here from Aquia Creek in Stafford County, Virginia, as importing the stone would be too costly.[26][27][28] The preliminary construction came about over a duration of eight years, at a reported value of 2,371.83 (identical to ,543,000 in 2020). Although not yet finished, the White House was once able for occupancy circa November 1, 1800.[29]

Shortages of material and hard work pressured alterations to the earlier plan advanced through French engineer Pierre Charles L'Enfant for a "palace" that was once 5 instances higher than the house that was once sooner or later constructed.[25] The completed construction contained handiest two major flooring as an alternative of the planned 3, and a less costly brick served as a lining for the stone façades. When construction was once completed, the porous sandstone partitions were whitewashed with a mix of lime, rice glue, casein, and lead, giving the house its familiar colour and identify.[25]

Architectural description

The north entrance is the major façade of the White House and consists of 3 floors and eleven bays. The flooring surface is hidden by means of a raised carriage ramp and parapet, thus the façade appears to be of two flooring. The central three bays are at the back of a prostyle portico (this was a later addition to the house, constructed circa 1830) serving, due to the carriage ramp, as a porte cochere. The windows of the four bays flanking the portico, at first-floor stage, have alternating pointed and segmented pediments, while at second-floor stage the pediments are flat. The important entrance at the center of the portico is surmounted by a lunette fanlight. Above the doorway is a sculpted floral festoon. The roofline is hidden through a balustraded parapet.

The mansion's southern façade is a mix of the Palladian and neoclassical kinds of architecture. It is of three flooring, all seen. The ground floor is rusticated in the Palladian model. At the center of the façade is a neoclassical projecting bow of 3 bays. The bow is flanked by means of 5 bays, the windows of which, as at the north façade, have alternating segmented and pointed pediments at first-floor degree. The bow has a ground floor double staircase resulting in an Ionic colonnaded loggia (with the Truman Balcony at second-floor degree), referred to as the south portico. The more modern 1/3 surface is hidden via a balustraded parapet and performs no phase within the composition of the façade.

Naming conventions

The construction was at the start variously referred to as the "President's Palace", "Presidential Mansion", or "President's House".[30] The earliest proof of the general public calling it the "White House" used to be recorded in 1811.[31] A delusion emerged that all through the rebuilding of the construction after the Burning of Washington, white paint used to be carried out to mask the burn injury it had suffered,[32] giving the construction its namesake hue.[33] The title "Executive Mansion" used to be used in legit contexts till President Theodore Roosevelt established the formal title via having "White House–Washington" engraved on the stationery in 1901.[34][35] The present letterhead wording and association "The White House" with the word "Washington" centered beneath goes again to the management of Franklin D. Roosevelt.[35]

Although the construction used to be now not completed till some years after the presidency of George Washington, there's hypothesis that the name of the traditional place of dwelling of the president of the United States will have derived from Martha Washington's home, White House Plantation in Virginia, the place the nation's first president had courted the primary lady within the mid-18th century.[36]

Evolution of the White House

Early use, the 1814 fireplace, and rebuilding

On Saturday, November 1, 1800, John Adams became the primary president to take place of dwelling in the development.[25] The next day he wrote his wife Abigail: "I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this House, and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof."[37] President Franklin D. Roosevelt had Adams's blessing carved into the mantel in the State Dining Room.[37]

Adams lived within the house simplest in brief sooner than Thomas Jefferson moved into the "pleasant country residence"[38] in 1801. Despite his lawsuits that the house used to be too large ("big enough for two emperors, one pope, and the grand lama in the bargain"),[39] Jefferson considered how the White House might be added to. With Benjamin Henry Latrobe, he helped lay out the design for the East and West Colonnades, small wings that lend a hand hide the home operations of laundry, a solid and garage.[25] Today, Jefferson's colonnades hyperlink the residence with the East and West Wings.[25]

In 1814, during the War of 1812, the White House used to be set ablaze via British troops[40] all the way through the Burning of Washington, in retaliation for attacking and burning Toronto (then referred to as York),[41]Port Dover and other towns in Upper Canada; a lot of Washington was once suffering from those fires as effectively. Only the exterior walls remained, they usually had to be torn down and mostly reconstructed on account of weakening from the fire and subsequent exposure to the weather, excluding for parts of the south wall. Of the a lot of objects taken from the White House when it was once ransacked by British troops, only three were recovered. Employees and slaves rescued a painting of George Washington,[40], in 1939, a Canadian man returned a jewelry field to President Franklin Roosevelt, claiming that his grandfather had taken it from Washington, and, also in 1939, a medicine chest that had belonged to President Madison was returned by means of the descendants of a British naval officer.[42][43] Some observers allege that all these spoils were lost when a convoy of British ships led through HMS Fantome sank en path to Halifax off Prospect all through a storm at the night time of November 24, 1814,[44][45] even supposing Fantome had no involvement in that motion.[46]

After the fireplace, President James Madison resided in the Octagon House from 1814 to 1815, and then the Seven Buildings from 1815 to the top of his term.[47] Meanwhile, both architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe and Hoban contributed to the design and oversight of the reconstruction, which lasted from 1815 till 1817. The south portico was constructed in 1824 all the way through the James Monroe administration; the north portico was once built six years later.[25] Though Latrobe proposed identical porticos sooner than the hearth in 1814, each porticos were constructed as designed by way of Hoban.[48] An elliptical portico at Château de Rastignac in La Bachellerie, France with nearly an identical curved stairs is speculated because the supply of inspiration due to its similarity with the South Portico,[49] even supposing this topic is one in every of great debate.[50] Italian artisans, brought to Washington to assist in developing the U.S. Capitol, carved the ornamental stonework on each porticos. Contrary to speculation, the North Portico was no longer modeled on a equivalent portico on another Dublin construction, the Viceregal Lodge (now Áras an Uachtaráin, residence of the President of Ireland), for its portico postdates the White House porticos' design.[49] For the North Portico, a variation at the Ionic Order was devised incorporating a swag of roses between the volutes. This used to be done to link the new portico with the sooner carved roses above the doorway.

The White House because it seemed following the fireplace of August 24, 1814

Jefferson and Latrobe's West Wing Colonnade, on this nineteenth-century engraved view, is now the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room.

Principal story plan for the White House via Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1807

Earliest recognized photograph of the White House, taken c. 1846 by means of John Plumbe all over the management of James K. Polk

Overcrowding and construction the West Wing Entrance Hall in 1882, showing the new Tiffany glass display

By the time of the American Civil War, the White House had turn out to be overcrowded. The location of the White House was once puzzled, simply north of a canal and swampy lands, which supplied stipulations ripe for malaria and different bad stipulations.[51] Brigadier General Nathaniel Michler was once tasked to propose solutions to handle these considerations. He proposed abandoning the usage of the White House as a residence and designed a brand new property for the primary family at Meridian Hill in Washington, D.C., but Congress rejected the plan.[51] Another web page into consideration was Metropolis View, these days the campus of The Catholic University of America.[52]

Additions proposed via architect Frederick D. Owen (1901) The North Lawn during the Lincoln administration

When Chester A. Arthur took place of work in 1881, he ordered renovations to the White House to happen as soon because the just lately widowed Lucretia Garfield moved out. Arthur inspected the work virtually nightly and made several suggestions. Louis Comfort Tiffany was asked to ship selected designers to help. Over twenty wagonloads of furniture and home goods have been removed from the development and sold at a public public sale.[53] All that was once saved were bust portraits of John Adams and Martin Van Buren.[54] A proposal was made to build a new place of dwelling south of the White House, nevertheless it failed to achieve fortify.

In the autumn of 1882 paintings used to be accomplished at the primary hall, together with tinting the partitions faded olive and including squares of gold leaf, and adorning the ceiling in gold and silver, and colorful traceries woven to spell "USA". The Red Room used to be painted a dull Pomeranian purple, and its ceiling was embellished with gold, silver, and copper stars and stripes of pink, white, and blue. A fifty-foot jeweled Tiffany glass display screen, supported by imitation marble columns, changed the glass doorways that separated the primary hall from the north vestibule.[55][56]

In 1891, First Lady Caroline Harrison proposed primary extensions to the White House, including a National Wing on the east for a historical artwork gallery, and a wing on the west for reliable purposes.[51] A plan was devised by Colonel Theodore A. Bingham, which reflected the Harrison proposal.[51] These plans were in the end rejected.

However, in 1902 Theodore Roosevelt employed McKim, Mead & White to carry out expansions and renovations in a neoclassical style fitted to the construction's architecture, putting off the Tiffany display screen and all Victorian additions.[57][58]Charles McKim himself designed and controlled the challenge, which gave extra dwelling area to the president's large circle of relatives by way of eliminating a staircase within the West Hall and shifting govt place of business workforce from the second surface of the residence into the brand new West Wing.[25]

President William Howard Taft enlisted the assistance of architect Nathan C. Wyeth so as to add additional area to the West Wing, which incorporated the addition of the Oval Office.[51] In 1925, Congress enacted regulation permitting the White House to accept gifts of furniture and art for the primary time.[59]:17 The West Wing was damaged by way of hearth on Christmas Eve 1929; Herbert Hoover and his aides moved back into it on April 14, 1930.[60] In the 1930s, a moment story used to be added, in addition to a larger basement for White House group of workers, and President Franklin Roosevelt had the Oval Office moved to its provide location: adjoining to the Rose Garden.[25]

Truman reconstruction Main article: White House Reconstruction Truman reconstruction, 1949–1952. A steel construction is constructed throughout the exterior shell.

Decades of poor upkeep, the development of a fourth tale attic all through the Coolidge administration, and the addition of a second-floor balcony over the south portico for Harry S. Truman[61] took an ideal toll on the brick and sandstone construction built round a bushes frame.[25] By 1948, the house was once declared to be in imminent risk of collapse, forcing President Truman to fee a reconstruction and to live around the boulevard at Blair House from 1949 to 1951.[62] The paintings, executed via the firm of Philadelphia contractor John McShain, required the whole dismantling of the interior areas, structure of a new load-bearing internal metal frame and the reconstruction of the original rooms throughout the new construction.[61] The overall cost of the renovations used to be about .7 million ( million in 2020).[63] Some adjustments to the floor plan have been made, the largest being the repositioning of the grand staircase to open into the Entrance Hall, fairly than the Cross Hall.[61] Central air conditioning was once added, in addition to two further sub-basements offering space for workrooms, garage, and a bomb refuge.[25] The Trumans moved back into the White House on March 27, 1952.[25] While the house's structure was once stored intact through the Truman reconstruction, a lot of the new inside finishes were generic, and of little ancient price. Much of the original plasterwork, some relationship back to the 1814–1816 rebuilding, was once too broken to reinstall, as was once the unique robust Beaux Arts paneling within the East Room. President Truman had the original trees body sawn into paneling; the walls of the Vermeil Room, Library, China Room, and Map Room on the flooring surface of the principle residence have been paneled in wood from the timbers.[64]

Jacqueline Kennedy restoration The Red Room as designed through Stéphane Boudin during the presidency of John F. Kennedy

Jacqueline Kennedy, spouse of President John F. Kennedy (1961–63), directed a very intensive and historical redecoration of the house. She enlisted the assistance of Henry Francis du Pont of the Winterthur Museum to lend a hand in accumulating artifacts for the mansion, lots of which had as soon as been housed there.[65] Other antiques, high quality art work, and improvements of the Kennedy duration were donated to the White House through wealthy philanthropists, including the Crowninshield circle of relatives, Jane Engelhard, Jayne Wrightsman, and the Oppenheimer circle of relatives.

Stéphane Boudin of the House of Jansen, a Paris interior-design firm that have been recognized international, was employed by Jacqueline Kennedy to lend a hand with the ornament.[65] Different periods of the early republic and international history were selected as a theme for each room: the Federal style for the Green Room, French Empire for the Blue Room, American Empire for the Red Room, Louis XVI for the Yellow Oval Room, and Victorian for the president's learn about, renamed the Treaty Room. Antique furnishings was received, and ornamental material and trim in keeping with length paperwork used to be produced and installed. The Kennedy recovery ended in a extra unique White House of grander stature, which recalled the French style of Madison and Monroe.[65] In the Diplomatic Reception Room, Mrs. Kennedy installed an antique "Vue de l'Amérique Nord" wallpaper which Zuber & Cie had designed in 1834. The wallpaper had hung previously on the walls of another mansion till 1961 when that house used to be demolished for a grocery store. Just sooner than the demolition, the wallpaper was salvaged and offered to the White House.

The first White House guidebook was produced below the route of curator Lorraine Waxman Pearce with direct supervision from Mrs. Kennedy.[66] Sale of the guidebook helped finance the restoration.

Kennedy showed her restoration of the White House to the public in a televised tour of the house on Valentine's Day in 1962.[67]

The White House for the reason that Kennedy restoration

The White House complicated and vicinity, seen from the north with the Potomac River, Jefferson Memorial and Washington Monument to the south

Congress enacted legislation in September 1961 declaring the White House a museum. Furniture, fixtures, and decorative arts could now be declared either ancient or of creative passion by way of the president. This averted them from being sold (as many objects within the government mansion had been prior to now A hundred and fifty years). When no longer in use or show on the White House, this stuff had been to be grew to become over to the Smithsonian Institution for preservation, find out about, storage, or exhibition. The White House retains the best to have these items returned.[59]:29

Out of appreciate for the ancient personality of the White House, no substantive architectural changes were made to the house for the reason that Truman renovation.[68] Since the Kennedy restoration, each and every presidential circle of relatives has made some adjustments to the non-public quarters of the White House, however the Committee for the Preservation of the White House will have to approve any changes to the State Rooms. Charged with keeping up the historic integrity of the White House, the congressionally-authorized committee works with each First Family – generally represented via the first lady, the White House curator, and the executive usher – to enforce the family's proposals for changing the house.[69]

During the Nixon Administration (1969–1974), First Lady Pat Nixon refurbished the Green Room, Blue Room, and Red Room, operating with Clement Conger, the curator appointed by means of President Richard Nixon.[70] Mrs. Nixon's efforts brought more than Six hundred artifacts to the house, the biggest acquisition via any administration.[71] Her husband created the fashionable press briefing room over Franklin Roosevelt's previous swimming pool.[72] Nixon also added a single-lane bowling alley to the White House basement.[73]

Computers and the first laser printer had been added all through the Carter administration, and the usage of pc generation used to be expanded during the Reagan administration.[74] A Carter-era innovation, a suite of solar water heating panels that were fixed on the roof of the White House, was removed all the way through Reagan's presidency.[75][76] Redecorations had been made to the non-public circle of relatives quarters and upkeep used to be made to public spaces all through the Reagan years.[77] The house was once authorized as a museum in 1988.[77]

In the 1990s, Bill and Hillary Clinton refurbished some rooms with the help of Arkansas decorator Kaki Hockersmith, together with the Oval Office, the East Room, Blue Room, State Dining Room, Lincoln Bedroom, and Lincoln Sitting Room.[78] During the administration of George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush refurbished the Lincoln Bedroom in a mode contemporary with the Lincoln period; the Green Room, Cabinet Room, and theater were additionally refurbished.[78]

The White House changed into some of the first wheelchair-accessible govt buildings in Washington when changes were made throughout the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, who used a wheelchair on account of his paralytic illness. In the Nineteen Nineties, Hillary Clinton, on the advice of Visitors Office Director Melinda N. Bates, authorized the addition of a ramp within the East Wing corridor. It allowed easy wheelchair get admission to for the general public tours and special occasions that input through the protected front development on the east facet.

In 2003, the Bush management reinstalled solar thermal heaters.[76] These gadgets are used to heat water for panorama upkeep group of workers and for the presidential pool and spa. One hundred sixty-seven sun photovoltaic grid-tied panels were installed at the same time on the roof of the maintenance facility. The adjustments weren't publicized as a White House spokeswoman stated the changes have been an internal matter. The tale used to be picked up by trade business journals.[79] In 2013, President Barack Obama had a suite of sun panels installed on the roof of the White House, making it the first time solar power can be used for the president's residing quarters.[80][81]

Layout and facilities

Today the crowd of constructions housing the presidency is known as the White House Complex. It contains the central Executive Residence flanked by means of the East Wing and West Wing. The Chief Usher coordinates day after day family operations. The White House contains six tales and 55,000 sq. feet (5,A hundred m2) of floor area, 132 rooms and 35 bogs, 412 doors, 147 windows, twenty-eight fireplaces, 8 staircases, three elevators, 5 full-time chefs, a tennis court, a (single-lane) bowling alley, a film theater (formally referred to as the White House Family Theater[82]), a jogging observe, a swimming pool, and a putting green.[35] It receives as much as 30,000 guests each and every week.[83]

Layout of entire websiteWhite House ComplexWest WingGround floorState surfaceSecond floor (place of dwelling) Executive Residence Main article: Executive Residence

The authentic residence is in the heart. Two colonnades – one at the east and one at the west – designed by means of Jefferson, now serve to glue the East and West Wings added later. The Executive Residence homes the president's living, in addition to rooms for ceremonies and official entertaining. The State Floor of the place of dwelling construction contains the East Room, Green Room, Blue Room, Red Room, State Dining Room, Family Dining Room, Cross Hall, Entrance Hall, and Grand Staircase.[84] The Ground Floor is made up of the Diplomatic Reception Room, Map Room, China Room, Vermeil Room, Library, the principle kitchen, and different offices.[85] The moment surface circle of relatives place of abode contains the Yellow Oval Room, East and West Sitting Halls, the White House Master Bedroom, President's Dining Room, the Treaty Room, Lincoln Bedroom and Queens' Bedroom, as well as two further bedrooms, a smaller kitchen, and a non-public dressing room.[86] The 0.33 surface is composed of the White House Solarium, Game Room, Linen Room, a Diet Kitchen, and any other sitting room (previously used as President George W. Bush's exercise room).[87]

West Wing Main article: West Wing

The West Wing homes the president's place of job (the Oval Office) and offices of his senior body of workers, with room for roughly 50 workers. It additionally contains the Cabinet Room, where the president conducts industry meetings and where the Cabinet meets,[88] as well as the White House Situation Room, James S. Brady Press Briefing Room, and Roosevelt Room.[89] In 2007, work was finished on renovations of the press briefing room, adding fiber optic cables and LCD monitors for the display of charts and graphs.[90] The makeover took Eleven months and cost of  million, out of which news outlets paid



 million.[90] In September 2010, a two-year undertaking started at the West Wing, making a multistory underground construction.[91]

Some participants of the President's staff are located in the adjoining Eisenhower Executive Office Building, till 1999 known as the Old Executive Office Building, and historically the State War and Navy development.[90]

The Oval Office, Roosevelt Room, and other portions of the West Wing had been partially replicated on a sound level and used because the environment for The West Wing tv display.[92]

East Wing Main article: East Wing

The East Wing, which incorporates further office space, was once added to the White House in 1942. Among its uses, the East Wing has intermittently housed the places of work and group of workers of the first lady, and the White House Social Office. Rosalynn Carter, in 1977, used to be the primary to put her non-public place of work in the East Wing and to formally call it the "Office of the First Lady". The East Wing was once constructed throughout World War II with a purpose to cover the construction of an underground bunker to be used in emergencies. The bunker has come to be known as the Presidential Emergency Operations Center.


The White House and grounds cover just over 18 acres (about 7.3 hectares). Before the development of the North Portico, maximum public events were entered from the South Lawn, the grading and planting of which was once ordered by way of Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson also drafted a planting plan for the North Lawn that incorporated massive bushes that may have mostly obscured the house from Pennsylvania Avenue. During the mid-to-late Nineteenth century a series of ever better greenhouses had been constructed at the west aspect of the house, where the present West Wing is positioned. During this era, the North Lawn was once planted with ornate carpet-style flowerbeds. The general format of the White House grounds as of late is in line with the 1935 design by way of Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. of the Olmsted Brothers firm, commissioned through President Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the Kennedy administration, the White House Rose Garden was once redesigned via Rachel Lambert Mellon. The Rose Garden borders the West Colonnade. Bordering the East Colonnade is the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden, which was begun by Jacqueline Kennedy however completed after her husband's assassination. On the weekend of June 23, 2006, a century-old American Elm (Ulmus americana L.) tree on the north facet of the building got here down during one of the crucial many storms amid intense flooding. Among the oldest bushes on the grounds are several magnolias (Magnolia grandiflora) planted through Andrew Jackson, together with the Jackson Magnolia, reportedly grown from a sprout taken from the favorite tree of Jackson's lately deceased spouse, the sprout planted after Jackson moved into the White House. The tree stood for over 200 years; but in 2017, having develop into too vulnerable to face by itself, it was once made up our minds it should be got rid of and changed with considered one of its offspring.[93][94] Michelle Obama planted the White House's first organic lawn and installed beehives at the South Lawn of the White House, which can provide organic produce and honey to the First Family and for state dinners and other legitimate gatherings.[95] In 2020, First Lady Melania Trump redesigned the Rose Garden.

The Cross Hall, connecting the State Dining Room and the East Room on the State Floor

Marine One prepares to land on the South Lawn, where State Arrival Ceremonies are held.

View from the south, with south fountain

View from the north, with north fountain

White House at night, view from the north

Public get right of entry to and safety

See additionally: White House Visitors Office and List of White House security breaches Historical accessibility

Like the English and Irish country homes it was once modeled on, the White House was, from the beginning, open to the general public till the early part of the 20 th century. President Thomas Jefferson held an open house for his second inaugural in 1805, and lots of the other people at his swearing-in rite on the Capitol followed him home, where he greeted them in the Blue Room. Those open houses on occasion changed into rowdy: in 1829, President Andrew Jackson had to go away for a resort when kind of 20,000 voters celebrated his inauguration throughout the White House. His aides ultimately needed to entice the mob outdoor with washtubs stuffed with a potent cocktail of orange juice and whiskey.[96] Even so, the practice endured until 1885, when newly elected Grover Cleveland organized for a presidential evaluate of the troops from a grandstand in front of the White House as an alternative of the traditional open house. Inspired through Washington's open properties in New York and Philadelphia, John Adams began the tradition of the White House New Year's Reception.[97] Jefferson additionally approved public excursions of his house, which have endured ever since, excluding during wartime, and started the custom of annual reception on the Fourth of July. Those receptions ended in the early Thirties, even if President Bill Clinton in brief revived the New Year's Day open house in his first term.

Aviation incidents

In February 1974, a stolen army helicopter landed without authorization on the White House's grounds.[98] Twenty years later, in 1994, a light airplane flown by means of Frank Eugene Corder crashed at the White House grounds, and he died straight away.[99]

As a result of greater security referring to air visitors within the capital, the White House was evacuated in May 2005 sooner than an unauthorized plane may manner the grounds.[100]

Closure of Pennsylvania Avenue A uniformed US Secret Service Agent on Pennsylvania Avenue

On May 20, 1995, essentially as a response to the Oklahoma City bombing of April 19, 1995, the United States Secret Service closed off Pennsylvania Avenue to vehicular visitors in front of the White House from the jap fringe of Lafayette Park to seventeenth Street. Later, the closure was extended an extra block to the east to 15th Street, and East Executive Avenue, a small side road between the White House and the Treasury Building.

After September 11, 2001, this modification used to be made everlasting along with ultimate E Street between the South Portico of the White House and the Ellipse.[101] In reaction to the Boston Marathon bombing, the street was once closed to the public in its entirety for a duration of 2 days.

The Pennsylvania Avenue remaining has been hostile through arranged civic groups in Washington, D.C. They argue that the last impedes traffic glide unnecessarily and is inconsistent with the well-conceived historical plan for the city. As for security issues, they observe that the White House is ready a lot farther back from the street than a lot of other sensitive federal buildings are.[102]

Prior to its inclusion throughout the fenced compound that now comprises the Old Executive Office Building to the west and the Treasury Building to the east, this sidewalk served as a queuing space for the day-to-day public tours of the White House. These tours were suspended within the wake of the September 11 attacks. In September 2003, they resumed on a limited basis for teams making prior preparations thru their Congressional representatives or embassies in Washington for foreign nationals and submitting to background checks, but the White House remained closed to the general public.[103] White House tours had been suspended for most of 2013 due to budget constraints after sequestration.[104] The White House reopened to the general public in November 2013.[105]


The White House Complex is secure by way of the United States Secret Service and the United States Park Police.

NASAMS (Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System) were used to guard air space over Washington, D.C. throughout the 2005 presidential inauguration. The identical NASAMS units have since been used to give protection to the president and all airspace around the White House, which is precisely prohibited to airplane.[106][107]

For safety reasons, the phase of Pennsylvania Avenue at the north aspect of the White House is closed to all vehicular site visitors, aside from govt officials.

North front of the White House at the opposite (again) of the U.S. bill.

See additionally

Camp David Pedro Casanave Germantown White House Graphics and Calligraphy Office List of biggest houses within the United States List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C. List of flats of presidents of the United States Number One Observatory Circle, place of dwelling of the Vice President Reported White House ghosts White House Acquisition Trust White House Chief Calligrapher White House Chief Floral Designer White House Christmas tree White House Communications Agency White House Endowment Trust White House Executive Chef White House Fellows White House History White House Social Secretary Category:Rooms in the White House White House COVID-19 outbreak


^ L'Enfant identified himself as "Peter Charles L'Enfant" during maximum of his lifestyles whilst residing within the United States. He wrote this title on his "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t(he) United States ..." (Washington, D.C.) and on different criminal documents. However, during the early 1900s, a French ambassador to the USA, Jean Jules Jusserand, popularized the usage of L'Enfant's delivery title, "Pierre Charles L'Enfant". (Reference: Bowling, Kenneth R (2002). Peter Charles L'Enfant: imaginative and prescient, honor, and male friendship within the early American Republic. George Washington University, Washington, D.C. .mw-parser-output cite.quotationfont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .quotation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")appropriate 0.1em middle/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em middle/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolour:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:assist.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,clear),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")correct 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errorshow:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintshow:none;colour:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .quotation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritISBN 978-0-9727611-0-9). The United States Code states in 40 U.S.C. § 3309: "(a) In General. – The purposes of this chapter shall be carried out in the District of Columbia as nearly as may be practicable in harmony with the plan of Peter Charles L'Enfant." The National Park Service identifies L'Enfant as "Major Peter Charles L'Enfant" and as "Major Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant" on its site. ^ Sources disagree[22]


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Further studying

Abbott, James A. A Frenchman in Camelot: The Decoration of the Kennedy White House by way of Stéphane Boudin. Boscobel Restoration Inc.: 1995. ISBN 978-0-9646659-0-3. Abbott, James A. Jansen. Acanthus Press: 2006. ISBN 978-0-926494-33-6. Clinton, Hillary Rodham. An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History. Simon & Schuster: 2000. ISBN 978-0-684-85799-2. Garrett, Wendell. Our Changing White House. Northeastern University Press: 1995. ISBN 978-1-55553-222-2. Guidas, John. The White House: Resources for Research on the Library of Congress. Library of Congress, 1992. Huchet de Quénetain, Christophe. "De quelques bronzes dorés français conservés à la Maison-Blanche à Washington D.C." in La Revue, Pierre Bergé & associés, n°6, mars 2005 pp. 54–55. OCLC 62701407. Kenny, Peter M., Frances F. Bretter and Ulrich Leben. Honoré Lannuier Cabinetmaker from Paris: The Life and Work of French Ébiniste in Federal New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and Harry Abrams: 1998. ISBN 978-0-87099-836-2. Klara, Robert. The Hidden White House: Harry Truman and the Reconstruction of America's Most Famous Residence. Thomas Dunne Books: 2013. ISBN 978-1-2500-0027-9. Kloss, William. Art in the White House: A Nation's Pride. White House Historical Association in cooperation with the National Geographic Society, 1992. ISBN 978-0-8109-3965-3. Leish, Kenneth. The White House. Newsweek Book Division: 1972. ISBN 978-0-88225-020-5. McKellar, Kenneth, Douglas W. Orr, Edward Martin, et al. Report of the Commission at the Renovation of the Executive Mansion. Commission on the Renovation of the Executive Mansion, Government Printing Office: 1952. Monkman, Betty C. The White House: The Historic Furnishing & First Families. Abbeville Press: 2000. ISBN 978-0-7892-0624-4. New York Life Insurance Company. The Presidents from 1789 to 1908 and the History of the White House. New York Life Insurance Company: 1908. Penaud, Guy Dictionnaire des châteaux du Périgord. Editions Sud-Ouest: 1996. ISBN 978-2-87901-221-6. Phillips-Schrock, Patrick. The White House: An Illustrated Architectural History (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2013) 196 pp. Seale, William. The President's House. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 1986. ISBN 978-0-912308-28-9. Seale, William, The White House: The History of an American Idea. White House Historical Association: 1992, 2001. ISBN 978-0-912308-85-2. West, J.B. with Mary Lynn Kotz. Upstairs at the White House: My Life with the First Ladies. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan: 1973. ISBN 978-0-698-10546-1. Wolff, Perry. A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy. Doubleday & Company: 1962. Exhibition Catalogue, Sale 6834: The Estate of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis April 23–26, 1996. Sothebys, Inc.: 1996. The White House: An Historic Guide. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 2001. ISBN 978-0-912308-79-1. The White House. The First Two Hundred Years, ed. by way of Frank Freidel/William Pencak, Boston 1994.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media associated with White House.Official web page The White House Historical Association, with ancient footage, online tours and shows, timelines, and information President's Park (White House) a part of the National Park Service The White House Museum, a detailed online tour Detailed three-D computer model of White House and grounds Video excursions: "White House Holiday Tour with Laura Bush". C-SPAN. December 3, 2008. "White House Tour". C-SPAN. July 7, 1998. "Popular video tours". C-SPAN. Retrieved August 1, 2015. Geographic information related to White House at OpenStreetMapvteWhite HouseExecutiveResidenceBasement Basement Chief Floral DesignerGround floor China Room assortment Office of the Curator Diplomatic Reception Room Library Map Room Vermeil RoomState surface Blue Room Cross Hall East Room Entrance Hall Family Dining Room Grand Staircase Green Room Red Room South Portico State Dining Room Chief UsherSecond surface Center Hall Dressing Room East Bedroom East Sitting Hall Family Kitchen Lincoln Bedroom Lincoln Sitting Room President's Bedroom President's Dining Room Private Sitting Room Queens' Bedroom Queens' Sitting Room Treaty Room Truman Balcony West Bedroom West Sitting Hall Yellow Oval RoomThird floor Center Hall Diet Kitchen Linen Room Music Room Sun Room Work-out RoomRoofFlagpoleWest Wing Cabinet Room Executive Office Oval Office table call button clock Oval Office Study Press Briefing Room Roosevelt Room Situation RoomEast Wing Office of the First Lady Graphics and Calligraphy Office Presidential Emergency Operations Center White House Family Theater Social Secretary Visitors Office White House Military OfficeGrounds The Ellipse Jacqueline Kennedy Garden Lafayette Square Andrew Jackson statue Marquis de Lafayette statue St. John's Church North Lawn President's Park Rose Garden South Lawn Horseshoe pit Putting inexperienced Swimming pool Tennis and basketball court White House to Treasury Building tunnelAnnex Eisenhower Executive Office Building New Executive Office Building White House Conference Center Blair House Peter Parker House Trowbridge House Presidential TownhouseNearbystreets 15th Street 17th Street Constitution Avenue E Street East Executive Avenue H Street NW Hamilton Place Jackson Place Madison Place Pennsylvania Avenue State Place West Executive AvenueOther Christmas Tree Reconstruction Security breaches vteLandmarks of Washington, D.C.Memorials Adams African American Civil War American Veterans Disabled for Life Belmont–Paul Women's Equality National Monument Mary McLeod Bethune Boy Scout James Buchanan John Carroll D.C. 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(Outdoor sculpture, American Revolution Statuary, Civil War Monuments, commemorating African-Americans) vteFormer US Presidential Emergency Facilities Cannonball web page 2 Cartwheel Corkscrew Cowpuncher Crown Crystal  United States portal vteU.S. National Register of Historic PlacesTopics Architectural style categories Contributing assets Historic district History of the National Register of Historic Places Keeper of the Register National Park Service Property varietiesLists through state List of U.S. National Historic Landmarks by state: Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin WyomingLists via insular areas American Samoa Guam Minor Outlying Islands Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin IslandsLists through associated state Federated States of Micronesia Marshall Islands PalauOther areas District of Columbia MoroccoRelated National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 Historic Preservation Fund List of jails and prisons on the National Register of Historic Places University and college constructions listed at the National Register of Historic Places  National Register of Historic Places portal Category vteOfficial executive apartments in North America  Antigua and Barbuda: Government House (GG)  Bahamas: Government House (GG)  Barbados: Government House (GG) Ilaro Court (PM)  Canada: Rideau Hall (Mon & GG) Citadelle of Quebec (GG) 24 Sussex Drive (PM) Harrington Lake (PM) Rideau Cottage (PM - brief)  Cuba: Presidential Palace (former)  Dominica: Government House  Dominican Republic: National Palace  Grenada: Government House (GG)  Haiti: National Palace  Jamaica: King's House (GG) Vale Royal (PM)  Mexico: Los Pinos National Palace (administrative center)  Puerto Rico: La Fortaleza  Saint Kitts and Nevis: Government House (GG)  Saint Lucia: Government House (GG)  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Government House (GG)  Trinidad and Tobago: President's House St. Anns Diplomatic Residence (PM)  United States: White House forty second Floor Apartment Camp David One Observatory Circle Presidential Emergency Facility Blair House Presidential Townhouse Tingey House Trowbridge HouseNotes Monarch (Mon) Governor-general (GG) Lieutenant-governor (LG) Prime minister (PM) Authority regulate General Integrated Authority File VIAF 1 WorldCatNational libraries Norway France (data) United States Latvia Czech Republic Australia Israel Sweden VaticanArt analysis institutes Artist Names (Getty)Other Faceted Application of Subject Terminology MusicBrainz place National Archives (US) Social Networks and Archival Context Trove (Australia) 1 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=White_House&oldid=1028594318"

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