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Jump to navigation Jump to look For different makes use of, see Lily of the valley (disambiguation).
Lily of the valley Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Monocots Order: Asparagales Family: Asparagaceae Subfamily: Nolinoideae Genus: Convallaria Species: C. majalis Binomial name Convallaria majalisL. Nineteenth-century representation
Lily of the valley, Convallaria majalis (/ˌkɒnvəˈleɪriə məˈdʒeɪlɪs/), once in a while written lily-of-the-valley, is a forest flowering plant with sweetly scented, pendent, bell-shaped white flowers borne in sprays in spring. It is local during the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere in Asia and Europe, however is regarded as normally invasive in parts of North America. Its relative, Convallaria majuscula, often referred to as the American Lily of the valley, is native to North America.
Due to the concentration of cardiac glycosides (cardenolides), it's extremely toxic if ate up by means of people or animals.
Other names come with May bells, Our Lady's tears, and Mary's tears. Its French title, muguet, infrequently seems in the names of perfumes imitating the flower's odor. In pre-modern England, the plant used to be referred to as glovewort (because it was a wort used to create a salve for sore hands), or Apollinaris (in keeping with a legend that it used to be came upon by means of Apollo).
Convallaria majalis is an herbaceous perennial plant that frequently forms in depth colonies via spreading underground stems referred to as rhizomes. New upright shoots are formed at the ends of stolons in summer, those upright dormant stems are frequently called pips. These grow in the spring into new leafy shoots that also stay hooked up to the different shoots below floor. The stems develop to fifteen–30 cm (6–12 in) tall, with one or two leaves 10–25 cm (4–10 in) lengthy; flowering stems have two leaves and a raceme of 5 to fifteen plants on the stem apex.
The vegetation have six white tepals (hardly ever pink), fused at the base to shape a bell-shape, 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) diameter, and sweetly scented; flowering is in late spring, in delicate winters in the Northern Hemisphere it is in early March. The fruit is a small orange-red berry 5–7 mm (0.2–0.3 in) diameter that comprises a couple of massive whitish to brownish colored seeds that dry to a transparent translucent spherical bead 1–3 mm (0.04–0.12 in) wide. Plants are self-sterile, and colonies consisting of a unmarried clone don't set seed.
In the APG III device, the genus is positioned in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae (previously the circle of relatives Ruscaceae). It was once formerly positioned in its own circle of relatives Convallariaceae, and, like many lilioid monocots, ahead of that during the lily family Liliaceae.
There are three varieties that have infrequently been separated out as distinct species or subspecies via some botanists.Convallaria majalis var. keiskei – from China and Japan, with red fruit and bowl-shaped plant life (now extensively cited as Convallaria keiskei) C. majalis var. majalis – from Eurasia, with white midribs on the flora C. majalis var. montana – from the United States, maybe with green-tinted midribs on the flora
Convallaria transcaucasica is recognised as a definite species via some government, whilst the species formerly referred to as Convallaria japonica is now categorised as Ophiopogon japonicus.
Convallaria majalis is a native of Europe, where it largely avoids the Mediterranean and Atlantic margins. An eastern variety, C. majalis var. keiskei occurs in Japan and parts of japanese Asia. A restricted native inhabitants of C. majalis var. montana (synonym C. majuscula) happens in the Eastern United States. There is, alternatively, some debate as to the native standing of the American variety.
Like many perennial flowering plants, C. majalis reveals twin reproductive modes via producing offspring asexually by vegetative approach and through seed, produced via the fusion of gametes.
Convallaria majalis is a plant of partial color, and mesophile sort that prefers heat summers. It likes soils that are silty or sandy and acid to quite alkaline, with ideally a ample quantity of humus. The Royal Horticultural Society states that moderately alkaline soils are the maximum liked. It is a Euroasiatic and suboceanic species that lives in mountains up to 1,500 m (4,900 toes) elevation.
Convallaria majalis is used as a food plant by means of the larvae of some moth and butterfly (Lepidoptera) species including the gray chi. Adults and larvae of the leaf beetle Lilioceris merdigera also are able to tolerate the cardenolides and thus feed on the leaves.
Convallaria majalis is extensively grown in gardens for its scented vegetation and ground-covering abilities in shady locations. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. In favourable conditions it will probably shape massive colonies.
Various types and cultivars are grown, together with the ones with double vegetation, rose-colored plants, variegated foliage and ones that develop larger than the standard species.C. majalis 'Albostriata' has white-striped leaves C. majalis 'Green Tapestry', 'Haldon Grange', 'Hardwick Hall', 'Hofheim', 'Marcel', 'Variegata' and 'Vic Pawlowski's Gold' are different variegated cultivars C. majalis 'Berlin Giant' and C. majalis 'Géant de Fortin' (syn. 'Fortin's Giant') are larger-growing cultivars C. majalis 'Flore Pleno' has double vegetation. C. majalis 'Rosea' from time to time discovered below the identify C. majalis var. rosea, has crimson plants.
Traditionally Convallaria majalis has been grown in pots and wintry weather forced to supply flowers all the way through the wintry weather months, both for as potted crops and as reduce vegetation.
Roughly 38 other cardiac glycosides (cardenolides) – which might be highly poisonous if fed on by means of humans or animals – occur in the plant, together with:convallarin convallamarin convallatoxin convallotoxoloside convallosid neoconvalloside glucoconvalloside majaloside convallatoxon corglycon cannogenol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside cannogenol-3-O-β-D-allomethyloside cannogenol-3-O-6-deoxy-β-D-allosido-β-D-glucoside, cannogenol-3-O-6-deoxy-β-D-allosido-α-L-rhamnoside, strophanthidin-3-O-6-deoxy-β-D-allosido-α-L-rhamnoside, strophanthidin-3-O-6-deoxy-β-D-allosido-α-L-arabinoside, strophanthidin-3-O-α-L-rhamnosido-2-β-D-glucoside, sarmentogenin-3-O-6-deoxy-β-D-allosido-α-L-rhamnoside sarmentogenin-3-O-6-deoxy-β-D-guloside 19-hydroxy-sarmentogenin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, 19-hydroxy-sarmentogenin arabinosido-6-deoxyallose lokundjoside
The odor of lily of the valley, particularly the ligand bourgeonal, used to be concept to attract mammalian sperm. The 2003 discovery of this phenomenon induced research into scent reception, but a 2012 study demonstrated as a substitute that at prime concentrations, bourgeonal imitated the position of progesterone in stimulating sperm to swim (chemotaxis), a procedure unrelated to smell reception.Toxicology
All parts of the plant are doubtlessly toxic, together with the purple berries that may be attractive to children. If ingested, the plant may cause belly pain, nausea, vomiting, and abnormal heartbeats.
In 1956, the French company Dior produced a fragrance simulating lily of the valley, which was Christian Dior's favorite flower. Diorissimo was once designed by means of Edmond Roudnitska. Although it has since been reformulated, it is thought of as a classic.
Other perfumes imitating or in accordance with the flower come with Henri Robert's Muguet de Bois (1936),Penhaligon's Lily of the Valley (1976), and Olivia Giacobetti's En Passant (2000).Weddings and other celebrations Catherine Middleton with bridal bouquet featuring lily of the valley
Lily of the valley has been used in weddings and will also be very dear. Lily of the valley was once featured in the bridal bouquet at the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton. Lily of the valley was additionally the flower selected by way of Princess Grace of Monaco to be featured in her bridal bouquet.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, it changed into tradition in France to promote lily of the valley on international labour day, 1 May (also referred to as La Fête du Muguet (Lily of the Valley Day) through labour organisations and private persons without paying gross sales tax (on that day most effective) as a logo of spring.
Lily of the valley is worn in Helston (Cornwall, UK) on Flora Day (8 May every yr, see Furry Dance) representing the coming of "the May-o" and the summer time. There could also be a track sung in pubs round Cornwall (and on Flora Day in Cadgwith, near Helston) known as "Lily of the Valley"; the tune, strangely, came from the Jubilee Singers from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee.Folk medicine
The plant has been used in people medicine for centuries. There is a connection with "Lilly of the valley water" in Robert Louis Stevenson's novel Kidnapped where it is said to be "good against the Gout", and that it "comforts the heart and strengthens the memory" and "restores speech to those that have the dumb palsey". There is not any clinical evidence that lily of the valley has any effective medicinal makes use of for treating human illnesses.
The lily of the valley was the nationwide flower of Yugoslavia, and it also became the national flower of Finland in 1967.
In the "language of flowers", the lily of the valley indicates the go back of happiness.Myths
The name "lily of the valley", like its correspondences in another European languages, is it appears a reference to the phrase "lily of the valleys" (from time to time also translated as "lily of the valley") in Song of Songs 2:1 (שׁוֹשַׁנַּת הָעֲמָקִים). European herbalists' use of the phrase to refer to a particular plant species turns out to have seemed slightly past due in the sixteenth or 15th century. The New Latin time period convallaria (coined by means of Carl Linnaeus) and, for example, Swedish title liljekonvalj derives from the corresponding word lilium convallium in the Vulgate.
Convallarias in Kemi in early June
Finnish 10 penny coin with the Convallaria carving
1 May, by Franz Xaver Winterhalter
Lunner (Norway) municipal coat of arms